The discovery of Hawai'i could not have resulted from an accidental drift voyage of helpless storm-wrecked fishermen; the way north demanded close-reaching against the wind through three different regions of prevailing winds and ocean currents. A coconut cannot drift from the South Pacific to Hawaii through these zones. Those who sailed were on a purposeful voyage of exploration. They knew of canoes which had sailed and never returned; but their ancestors had always found new islands in their ocean world, and the spirits of their most powerful ancestors would guide them now.
They may have been driven by population pressures, a famine caused by a period of drought, or lost a battle. They may have been led by an ambitious chief, perhaps one whose older brothers had left him with few expectations at home. Not all vayages were driven by necessity. South Pacific legends also tell of explorations made purely for adventure or to satisfy curiosity about the girls of another island.
No less than twenty-four species of plants upon which their culture depended were brought by canoe. Their domestic animals were the pig, a chicken of iridescent red and black plumage and a small dog. A species of small black rat probably arrived as a stowaway.
These plants and animals were of a Southeast Asian origin with the exception of the sweet potato. Believed to be of South American origin, its wide distribution in Polynesia suggests that it arrived at a very early time. The Polynesian term for sweet potato, kumara, is also a Peruvian Indian term(in Hawaiian kumara has become 'uala). Whether it was brought by Indians on a raft, or as a prize taken home by early Polynesian explorers, we will never know. The raft theory, launched by Thor Heyerdahl's Kon Tiki vayage, involves a one-way trip and may seem the most economical. But Indians were accustomed to saiking in the comforting presence of a continent. Those on a raft blown out to sea would have struggled to get back to land, no doubt consuming any vegetable on board. Polynesians were open-ocean sailors, knowing only islands, and accustomed to conserving rations and protecting plants from seawater over long vayages. (To be continued)
I'd love to... :(ぜひ)...したい make a bet on... ：...に関して賭けをする buy lunch:昼ごはんをおごる
Pasta tastes better with garlic.:パスタはニンニクを加えると美味しい My sister had a girl.:姉は女の子を産みました。
ビジネスの世界で頻繁に使われる表現から四者択一の問題！ 1. A: First, let me ( ) that one of the failures in your department is personnel management. B: We all know that. I think we need a new manager. a) point out, b) shell out, c) pin down, d) let down
2. A: It's stifling in here. Is something wrong with ventilation in the office ? B: We've just called ( ) to look into the problem. a) security, b) maintenance, c) defense, d) surveillance
3. A: Did you find out how much we spend on communications monthly ? B: Not quite. I can only give you a ( ) figure at the moment. a) hard, b) range, c) dressed, d) ballpark
4. A: Off the record, it has been decided to suspend the whole project. B: Oh, no! I've worked my ( ) off to put it into practice. a) head, b) neck, c) tail, d) brain
5. A: Jim treated me to a nice dinner last night. B: Amazing! That's onece in a blue ( ). He's usually tight with money. a) rose, b) note, c) streak, d) moon
After watching sales falling off for three straight months at Kentucky Fried Chicken, the Colonel calls up the Pope and asks for a favor.
The Pope says, "What can I do?"
The Colonel says, "I need you to change the daily prayer from, 'Give us this day our daily bread' to 'Give us this day our daily chicken'. If you do it, I'll donate 10 Million Dollars to the Vatican."
The Pope replies, "I am sorry. That is the Lord's prayer and I can not change the words." So the Colonel hangs up.
After another month of dismal sales, the Colonel panics, and calls again. "Listen your Excellency. I really need your help. I'll donate $50 million dollars if you change the words of the daily prayer from 'Give us this day our daily bread' to 'Give us this day our daily chicken.'"
And the Pope responds, "It is very tempting, Colonel Sanders. The church could do a lot of good with that much money. It would help us to support many charities. But, again, I must decline. It is the Lord's prayer, and I can't change the words."
So the Colonel gives up again. After two more months of terrible sales. The Colonel gets desperate. "This is my final offer, your Excellency. If you change the words of the daily prayer from, 'Give us this day our daily bread' to 'Give us this day our daily chicken' I will donate $100 million to the Vatican." The Pope replies, "Let me get back to you."
So the next day, the Pope calls together all of his bishops and he says, "I have some good news and I have some bad news. The good news is that KFC is going to donate $100 million to the Vatican." The bishops rejoice at the news. Then one asks about the bad news.
The Pope replies, "The bad news is that we lost the Wonder Bread account."
fall off:To become less; decrease: Lord's prayer:(Christianity)The prayer taught by Jesus to his disciples. Also called Our Father. hang up:(Informal) To have or cause to have emotional difficulties or inhibitions. tempting:something that is tempting seems very good and you would like to have it or do it: bishop:a priest with a high rank in some Christian religions, who is the head of all the churches and priests in a large area: rejoice:(literary) to feel or show that you are very happy
本日は秋らしく好天気で涼しい気候に恵まれた行楽日和の中、熱心な会員の皆さんとハイレベルの見学者が一緒に英語の勉強に臨んだ。 そんなサークル活動の中から「ニュースを読む」のコーナーで取り上げた英文ニュースをご紹介したい。英題は"Bible now available on mobile phones"で、詳しい内容はhttp://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20060920/od_nm/safrica_phonebible_dc_1に、アクセスすべし！ キリスト教信者の人口が多い南アフリカでは、携帯電話にハマっている若者向けに簡単にダウンロードできる、サービスが開始された。僅か$5.5弱を払えば新約聖書・旧約聖書・コーランの英語版・アフリカ語版、さらには古い翻訳版や新しい翻訳から好きなものを選び全編取り込むことが出来る。さらに別の会社では賛美歌を着メロとしてダウンロードするサービスも始めており、若者のキリスト教離れを防ごうという取り組みがなされている。
boost: something that gives someone more confidence, or thet helps something increase, improve, or become successful scripture: the (Holy) Scriptures, the Bible wing:(POLITICS) a group within a political party or other organization who have a particular opinion or aim non-denominational: not relating to one particular religion or religious group gimmick:(INFORMAL) a trick or something unusual that you do to make people notice someone or something - used to show disapproval(=stant) testament: the New Testament, the part of the Bible which describes the life of Jesus Christ and what he taught, and the life of Jesus Christ and what he taught, and the life of the first Christians(=Gospel, Old Testament) ringtone: the sound made by a telephone, especially a mobile phone, when someone is calling it SMS: Short Message Service(cellular phone text messaging) verse: a set of lines that forms one part of a song, poem, or a book such as the Bible or the Korean
Melanesia had been inhabited by dark-skinned peoples long before their arrival, New Guinea for more than 30,000 years. We may call the newcomers Proto-Polynesians, a people changing culturelly and physically, becoming but not yet Polynesian. Although they shared a culture, they may have lived in many groups, some exploring northward into the area of small islands now known as Micronesia and contributing to the ancestry of Micronesians, others acquiring Melanesian genes during periods of settlement along the northern coast of New Guinea or in the many islands of Malenesia. The trail of Lapita pottery leads eastward to Fiji, apparently settled by a people of mixed Proto Polynesian and Malanesian ancestry.
Searching farther to the east, others found uninhabited islands in Samoa - where finds of pottery are 3,000 years old - and Tonga. Here in this "Cradle of Polynesia," perhaps no more than a few canoe loads of Proto-Polynesia arrived. Over centuries they evolved the distinctive physical and cultural traits now regarded as Polynesian.
Later explorations continued the habit of moving eastward. Unable to sail against the prevailing easterly winds, they would have waited for periods of unsettled weather when wind shifts, brought about by the passage of low pressure troughs, enable to make their easting on winds varing from the north, west, or south. The Tahitian Islands and the Marquesas Islands were discovered, and became new homelands which spawned explorations to the outer limits of Polynesia. Hawai'i was discovered to the north at some time before 1,900 years ago, Easter Island (Rapa Nui) to the southeast, and New Zealand (Aoteroa) to the southwest - the three corners of a triangle equal in size to the combined surfaces of North and South America. (To be continued...)
1. Much of the telephone industry, suffering the shocks of the dot-com collapse and a monstrous debt splurge, is ( ) investments and auctioning off treasures in a bid to survive. A. paring, B. shrinking, C. orbiting, D. chipping
2. In spite of the fact that some investors want ABC company to ( ) its tobacco business, the Chairman said that they have no intention of splitting the company for the time being. A. spin off, B. cut through, C. lay off, D. eke out
3. Millions of Americans now have short-message features on their cell-phones that allow them to send and receive text e-mails pages. But a growing number are discovering that they also can be bombarded by unwanted commercial messages, known as "( )" in the Internet world. A. tram, B. spam, C. hitch, D. swamp
4. Mr. S ( ) the company's corporate-identity campaign, including a TV commercial aired on last year's Super Bowl that depicted rugged cowboys herding fluffy cats. The day after, traffic surged at the company's Web site. A. gratified, B. incorporated, C. masterminded, D. fabricated
5. In London, West End ticket sales have stagnated amid complaints of crime, garbage-strewn streets and transportation chaos. It isn't a crisis, but if someone doesn't take it by the ( ) of the neck it will be a real crisis in the next year or two. A. brim, B. lone, C. collar, D. scruff
it's really sweet: それってとっても素敵、気持ちよい why don't you ･･･?: ･･･したらどう？
ビジネスで使われる英語表現から四者択一問題をご紹介！ 1. Many fear the languid economy and rampant ( ) among corporations will decelerate the already-delayed broadband lines and hamper development of new programming and applications. A. cutting-edge, B. well-being, C. belt-tightening, D. on-going
2. ABC Inc. is having a ( ) sale, and almost nobody has come. The Internet retailer filed for Chapter 11 bankraptcy in July and has slowly been selling off assets. A. fire, B. blood, C. pep, D. gross
3. Independent shops often find it harder than the large advertising agencies to attract new clients during the economy slumps, partly because marketers spend less on TV and more on direct or guerrilla marketing. Often clients want a multitude of services under one ( ), marketing it more difficult for independents to compete. A. blanket, B. roof, C. canopy, D. tent
4. If you are directly billed, in the event payment is not made within 25 days after check-out, you will owe us interest from the check-out date on any unpaid amount at the rate of 1.5% per month, or the maximum allowed by law plus the reasonable cost of ( ), including attorney fees. A. elongation, B. evasion, C. complication, D. collection
5. The terms includes limits on liability for baggage, including fragile or perishable goods, and the availability of excess valuation ( ). Baggage liability is limited to US$2,500 per fare-paying customer unless you purchase excess valuation liability. A. policy, B. premium, C. coverage, D. inspection
exploratory: done in order to find out more about something backdrop:(LITERARY) the scenary behind something tha you are looking at soap opera: a television or radio story about the daily lives and relationships of the same group of people, which is broadcast regularly backing: support or help, especially with money stem:(FORMAL) to stop the flow of a liquid swamp: to suddenly cover an area with a lot of water displace: to make a group people or animals have to leave the place where they normally live dispute: to say that something such as a fact or idea is not correct or true
The moaning of conch shell trumpets kept canoes together at night. Sailing under the rising stars of the northern sky, reaching across powerful Northeast Tradewinds, they came upon a chain of islands of immense size. They searched for a landing; and when their canoes touched shore, human history in Hawai'i had begun. Their landing, we may believe, was not made without some ceremony to placate the spirits of this strange new land. They planted the cuttings, tubers and seeds they had carefully protected from seawater. Until their first harvest was ready they subsited by fishing, bird hunting, and gathering. And, over many generations, they made these islands a Polynesian place. We know nothing of their traditions, nor the names by which they knew themselves or these islands. The tradition we know as Hawaiian originated with others from the archaeological record that they were Polynesian. A thousand years would pass before the Vikings of another ocean would dare venture away from Europe's shores.
(ORIGINS) Whence the Polynesians ? Their language, animals and plants bespeak an ancient origin in Southeast Asia, where a native people may have been displaced by more powerful neighbours and forced to take to the sea, developing a maritime culture as they moved eastward though the many islands of what is now Indonesia. Archaeologists have found distinctive "Lapita" pottery 4,000 years old, and fragments of obsidian possibly 6,000 years old, marking a 2,300 mile "voyaging corridor" from Borneo eastward along yje northern shore of New Guinea to the Admiralty Islands and New Britain in Malanesia - evidence of a people with seafaring skills superior to those of the present inhabitants.
1. A Washington, D.C. hotelier is about to launch a new venture that would ( ) meetings and events around the globe via satellite and other means. A. convey, B. channel, C. transmit, D. trade
2. In the past, the company's sales people ( ) sales reports and customer feedback via fax, requiring secretaries at the head office to type the information into a company database. It was a time-consuming process prone to errors and delays. A. frequented, B. retrieved, C. extended, D. submitted
3. D Bank has one of the world's most famous corporate art collections, with more than 48,000 works of which some 2,500 are exhibited in London. It recently ( ) a joint venture with the G Foundation to open D-G Berlin in its offices there. A. tucked in, B. set up, C. popped up, D. put on
4. In the States, amid a cinema business ( ) caused by a glut of screens nationwide, movie theaters are starting to disappear quickly. They are being reincarnated as restaurants, offices, nightclubs and even churches. A. rundown, B. meltdown, C. holdup, D. kickoff
5. Although every advertisement is carefully checked, occasionally mistakes occur. We therefore ask advertisers to assist us by checking their advertisements carefully and ( ) us immediately should an error occur. A. applying, B. advising, C. filing, D. coaching
ニュースを英文で読んで英語が学習でき、それを音声で聞いてさらに英語が学習できる、一度で二度美味しいサイト”Voice of America”から、今日は日本の新しい首相である安倍晋三氏が日本が中国や韓国との関係を改善する為の活動を早めている、という話題を紹介！ 英題は” Abe Moves Quickly to Improve Ties With South Korea and China”で、詳しい内容は、http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/2006-09-29-voa1.cfmアクセスすべし！ 今回新たに小泉首相に代わり誕生した安倍新首相は、首相として靖国神社参拝を継続するかどうかは明確に意思表示してはいないが、早速韓国の大統領や中国の主席と電話で会談し、１０月中にそれぞれの国を訪問することにしている。 一方で北朝鮮に対しては拉致問題が解決されるまでは訪問しない、とし、さらにアメリカとの関係強化を狙ってブッシュ大統領と電話で挨拶し、１１月にハノイで開催されるアジア太平洋経済会議での会談を約束した。早速の外交手腕発揮を期待したいところだ。（海外のメディアが日本の新首相をどう評価しているか、が見えて面白い！）
aggression:the act of attacking a country, especially when that country has not attacked first: memorial: something, especially a stone with writing on it, that reminds people of someone who has diedalliance: a group of two or more countries, groups etc who work together to achieve something: ally: a country that agrees to help or support another country in a war: constitutional: officially allowed or limited by the system of rules of a country or organization:
Approximately 4,200 pears were stolen from an orchard in Oita Prefecture. A horse belonging to a Russian circus escaped on to the streets of Nagoya. The horse's trainer, chasing by bicycle, later recaptured the animal. An airport in Hokkaido was closed after a middle-aged woman drove into the compound via a cargo entrance and motored along the runaway. A drunken salalyman died after falling off the platform at Ginza station unto the path of a Marunouchi line train headed for Ikebukuro. Separately, the Ginza line was shut down after smoke from a nearby earthquake drill drifted into the tunnel. The Construction Ministry announced that 45 percent of buildings vital to the running of the government after a major earthquake aren't strong enough to withstand such a temblor.
approximate:an approximate number, amount, or time is close to the exact number, amount etc, but could be a little bit more or less than it [= rough; ≠ exact]: compound:an area that contains a group of buildings and is surrounded by a fence or wall: vital:extremely important and necessary for something to succeed or exist [= crucial] withstand:to be strong enough to remain unharmed by something such as great heat, cold, pressure etc [= resist, stand up to]: temblor:(formal)an earthquake
A man absolutely hated his wife's cat and decided to get rid of him one day by driving him 20 blocks from his home and leaving him at the park.
As he was getting home, the cat was walking up the driveway.
The next day he decided to drive the cat 40 blocks away. He put the beast out and headed home.
Driving back up his driveway, there was the cat!
He kept taking the cat further and further and the cat would always beat him home. At last he decided to drive a few miles away, turn right, then left, past the bridge, then right again and another right until he reached what he thought was a safe distance from his home and left the cat there.
Hours later the man calls home to his wife: "Jen, is the cat there?"
"Yes," the wife answers, "why do you ask?"
Frustrated, the man answered, "Put that darn thing on the phone, I'm lost! and need directions!"
beat:control/deal with [transitive] to successfully deal with a problem that you have been struggling with [= conquer]: darn:(spoken informal)used to emphasize how bad, stupid, unfair etc someone or something is [= damn]: